types of chefs

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Imagine an orchestra, but instead of violins and clarinets, there are knives and pans; the symphony is not of melodies but of flavors. Such is the magic of a professional kitchen, where chefs play the central role. Choosing a career as a chef opens up a universe filled with diverse possibilities, each as tantalizing as the food they create.

While the term ‘chef’ may conjure up an image of a single person orchestrating the entire operation, the reality of a restaurant kitchen is much more complex. Professional chefs come in various types, each with unique responsibilities and areas of expertise. These range from the all-seeing executive chef who runs the show, to the specialized pastry or saucier chef who hones in on their craft.

Becoming and working as a chef is a journey of continuous learning and creativity, blending tradition with innovation. This article aims to guide you through the dynamic labyrinth of professional chefs, helping you understand their roles in the intricate choreography of a bustling kitchen. Welcome to the fascinating world of culinary arts.

What Is A Chef?

A chef is much more than just an individual cooking food in a kitchen. They are the beating heart that keeps the kitchen running smoothly. In a commercial kitchen, chefs typically assume a multifaceted role that involves more than just the preparation of food. They create and curate dishes on the menu, manage the staff, ensure the cleanliness of the kitchen, and manage the inventory.

The role a chef plays in the kitchen is critical to ensuring a restaurant’s success. Their creativity and ability to lead can turn an ordinary meal into an extraordinary culinary experience. Whether it’s the hole-in-the-wall local eatery or an upscale dining restaurant, a chef’s expertise significantly influences the customer’s satisfaction and the establishment’s reputation.

History and Evolution of Chefs

Chefs have been a part of society for centuries, although the profession and the respect it garners have changed significantly over time. In ancient times, cooking was considered a task rather than a profession. The Romans were among the first to recognize cooks in society, with some individuals gaining fame and even being freed from slavery for their culinary skills.

The term “chef” itself originates from the French phrase “chef de cuisine,” meaning “head of the kitchen.” This term came into existence in the middle ages, and the modern professional kitchen structure known as “Brigade de Cuisine” was established in the 19th century by legendary French chef Auguste Escoffier. This system revolutionized how a kitchen works, laying out clear roles and responsibilities for chefs and kitchen staff.

Escoffier’s influence cannot be understated, shaping the way professional kitchens run to this day. Today, being a chef is regarded as a prestigious career, an artistic profession that allows one to touch people’s lives with their culinary creations. 

Types of Chefs

The orchestration of a kitchen is defined by its hierarchy. A symphony of chefs, each specializing in a different culinary area, collectively harmonize to create a memorable dining experience. Let’s navigate the exciting types of professional chefs, each with their unique role in the kitchen.

1. Executive Chef

The Executive Chef, also known as the Head Chef, stands at the apex of the kitchen hierarchy. The executive chef oversees all kitchen operations, curating the menu, managing the kitchen staff, handling inventory, and liaising with suppliers. The kitchen is their responsibility and they’ll have the most significant input into the menu. The Executive Chef’s role also extends beyond the kitchen; they often meet with the restaurant owner and other key personnel to ensure the restaurant’s overall performance and customer satisfaction.

2. Sous Chef

A step below the Executive Chef, the Sous Chef, or the ‘second in command,’ plays a pivotal role in the kitchen. They assist the Head Chef in their duties and assume leadership when the Executive Chef is absent. The Sous Chef’s duties include supervising junior chefs, ensuring kitchen hygiene standards, and occasionally designing dishes. Becoming a Sous Chef requires extensive kitchen experience and proficiency in several culinary areas.

3. Chef de Partie (Station Chef)

Also known as a Line Cook, a Chef de Partie is responsible for one culinary area of the kitchen. These chefs specialize in a particular area, such as preparing sauces, roasting, grilling, or even baking. They report to the sous chef or executive chef. There are several different types of Chefs de Partie, each expertly managing their assigned station.

4. Pastry Chef

The realm of sweet indulgence and heavenly aromas is managed by the Pastry Chef. The pastry chefs specialize in creating mouth-watering desserts, pastries, bread, and other baked goods. They possess a deep understanding of the science behind baking and the art of dessert presentation.

5. Saucier Chef

The Saucier Chef is an artist who paints the canvas of cuisine with an array of flavorsome sauces. As a type of Chef de Partie, the Saucier is responsible for preparing sauces, soups, and sometimes sautéed or fried dishes. This role requires precise technique and an exceptional understanding of flavors and ingredients.

6. Grill Chef

Also known as the Grillardin, the Grill Chef responsible for all grilled foods. This chef masters the technique of grilling to perfection, handling everything from vegetables to various cuts of meat.

7. Butcher Chef

The Butcher Chef, or meat chef, is the kitchen’s meat expert. In charge of preparing all meat and poultry before it reaches other chefs, they have an in-depth understanding of different cuts of meat and the best culinary uses for each.

8. Pantry Chef

The Pantry Chef is responsible for preparing cold dishes such as salad and cold appetizers. This role requires excellent organizational skills to maintain the pantry and its inventory.

9. Roast Chef

The Rotisseur, or Roast Chef is in charge of handling roasted and braised meats, usually larger cuts and whole birds. This chef must have a thorough knowledge of roasting times and temperatures to achieve optimal flavors and textures.

10. Vegetable Chef

The Vegetable Chef, or Entremetier, specializes in vegetable dishes, soups, starches, and egg dishes. They add color and balance to the menu, ensuring the vegetable dishes are just as memorable as the entrées.

11. Fish Chef

The Poissonier, or Fish Chef, is the authority on seafood. From filleting fish to mastering the timing of cooking delicate seafood, this chef navigates the challenging and rewarding waters of marine cuisine.

12. Commis Chef

The Commis Chef is an entry-level position where chefs start their journey up the kitchen ladder. They assist the Chefs de Partie, learning and honing their culinary skills along the way.

13. Prep Chef

A Prep Cook or Prep Chef assists in the preliminary food preparation. Their duties include chopping vegetables, peeling potatoes, or cleaning seafood. They help ensure that the kitchen runs smoothly during service hours.

14. Expediter

Acting as a bridge between the kitchen and the dining room, the Expediter coordinates the pace of the entire kitchen, ensuring timely and smooth service. This role is critical in maintaining clear communication and efficiency in the restaurant.

15. Kitchen Manager

The Kitchen Manager oversees the operational aspect of the kitchen. They work with the Head Chef and the owner of the restaurant to keep the kitchen and the restaurant running efficiently. Their responsibilities include ordering supplies, ensuring equipment maintenance, and managing the kitchen budget.

16. Chef Tournant

The Chef Tournant, also known as the Swing Chef, is the utility player of the kitchen. They are well-versed in every station and fill in wherever needed, providing essential support to ensure seamless kitchen operations.

Frequently Asked Questions About Types of Chefs 

When delving into the world of culinary arts, several questions might spring up, especially for those interested in becoming a chef or simply understanding the inner workings of a professional kitchen. Let’s tackle some of the most commonly asked queries.

1. What is the highest type of chef?

The highest-ranking member of the kitchen is the Executive Chef, also known as the Head Chef. They oversee all kitchen operations, from curating the menu to managing the kitchen staff and even handling inventory. They are essentially the captain of the ship, responsible for navigating the kitchen through the turbulent seas of service hours.

2. What is an entry-level chef called?

An entry-level chef is often referred to as a Commis Chef. This position is typically held by chefs who have recently graduated from culinary school or are in the early stages of their careers. The Commis Chef assists in various kitchen responsibilities, gaining hands-on experience and learning from senior chefs.

3. What are the different types of Chef de Partie?

A Chef de Partie, also known as a line cook or station chef, is in charge of a particular area in the kitchen. Depending on the size and type of the restaurant, there can be several different roles. Some of the more common roles include:

  • Saucier: Chef in charge of sauces and sautés
  • Rotisseur: Chef responsible for roasts and grills
  • Grillardin: Chef specialized in grilling
  • Poissonier: Chef who handles fish dishes
  • Patissier: Chef who prepares desserts and pastries
  • Garde Manger: Chef in charge of cold dishes

Each chef de partie has distinct responsibilities and skills, contributing uniquely to the overall functioning of the kitchen.

4. What type of chef gets paid the most?

Typically, the highest-paid position in a kitchen is the Executive Chef. This is due to the significant responsibilities and expertise required for the role. However, it’s essential to understand that a chef’s salary can vary greatly based on factors like location, type of establishment, years of experience, and specific culinary skills.

5. What are the different levels of chefs?

A professional kitchen features a hierarchy, often based on the ‘Brigade de Cuisine’ system established by Auguste Escoffier. This kitchen hierarchy may include:

  • Executive Chef: Highest-ranking chef in the kitchen
  • Sous Chef: Second in command to the Executive Chef
  • Chef de Partie: Chef in charge of a particular section of the kitchen
  • Commis Chef: Entry-level position, assists the Chef de Partie
  • Kitchen Porter: Assists with basic tasks and cleanliness

These roles may vary or expand, depending on the size and type of restaurant. The system ensures efficiency, with each chef playing a pivotal role in the smooth operation of the kitchen.

5. Chef vs Cook, What’s The Difference?

A cook is a broad term for anyone who prepares food, while a chef typically refers to a professional with culinary training, responsible not just for cooking but also menu creation, staff management, and other administrative tasks in a restaurant or kitchen. Chefs often have a formal education and are more experienced, while cooks may not have formal training or the same level of responsibility.


Stepping into the world of professional cooking, it’s crucial to know the different roles and responsibilities that chefs work under in a bustling kitchen. A chef may begin their journey as a Commis Chef, learning the ropes before gradually ascending to higher ranks. Regardless of the size of the kitchen, every role—from the executive chef to the prep chef—contributes to the symphony of flavours served to diners. It’s a world where working in a kitchen signifies teamwork, passion, and creativity. Two chefs might hold the same title, but their individual artistry and culinary approach make every kitchen unique.

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